Monday, August 4, 2014


A few weeks ago I gave a talk at the 2014 SPNHC meeting on advocacy for natural history museums in the 21st Century. It was subtitled "when popularity isn't enough." The talk seemed to be well received, but reading a few on-line comments afterwards, I wasn't entirely sure that people had got the point. "Chris Norris says bats are scary," was one such comment. "I think it's a shame that the public have to be scared of collections to support them," was a comment made by one of my fellow speakers.

Of course, I didn't say either of those things and that wasn't the point of the talk. So at the risk of flogging a dead horse, and with apologies to any of you that were at the talk and got the point, I thought it was worth rehearsing the argument again. Perhaps with less bats and Ebola this time.

The talk in question was, first-and-foremost, about motivation; how do you get people to spend public funds on natural history museums and their collections when there are many more things that they could be spending the taxpayers' money on? It's a significant issue, for the foreseeable future at least, because of the ways in which the world is changing.

In the developed world people are living longer, and the costs of the medical treatments needed to keep them alive is rising dramatically as well. That means that the segment of public funding that governments have little or no control over - healthcare, social security, retirement benefits, etc. - is also climbing dramatically. In the U.S., as of 2010, public healthcare costs worked out at around 6.7% of GDP. By 2050, that fraction is predicted to rise to 14.9%.

Mandatory Spending - as that encumbered cost is referred to - accounts for around 60% of the U.S. Federal Budget. Out of the remainder that Government has control of on a year-by-year basis - called Discretionary Spending - comes everything else. It does include some money for museums, but it also includes funding for a bunch of things that people really care about - education, defense, medical research. And, to pick one particular example that's in the forefront of many people's minds at this time of year, control of wildfires.

Did you know that during the summer the U.S. Federal government spends $100 million a week on preventing and tackling wildfires? It adds up to around $2 billion a year. Set against this, the $5 million dollars a year spent by NSF on collections support seems pretty puny. Obviously there are strong motivations for allocating money to fire control - uncontrolled fires cause massive damage to land and property, and are a risk to people's lives and livelihoods. So how can museums compete with this level of urgency?

The answer, of course, lies in cooperation, not competition. In this case, for example, it is believed that one major factor in the increasing risk presented by wildfires is climate change, and one of the various ways that climate change affects wildfires is by promoting the spread of new types of insect pests. Pests kill trees, dead trees fuel fires. If you suddenly get an increase in the number of dead trees in a stand of forest, it's likely to affect the fire regime of that area.

So, if you're going to plan how to spend that $100 million a week most efficiently, it might be worth trying to map areas where pest species are occurring in places that they haven't been seen before, and for that you need data on historic occurrences that are found in museum collections. Better-curated collections equals better fire prevention, and that's surely worth devoting a small fraction of that massive fire control budget towards achieving.

Of course, it's not as simple as that. There are a significant number of people (and unsurprisingly they're on the right of the political spectrum) who think that money is better spent on fighting fires than preventing them, or using fire-prevention as leverage to allow more logging on public lands. Using funds to support entomologists and museum collections is unlikely to sit well with this constituency, especially as this strategy also involves some level of acknowledgment that the cause of the problem lies with climate change.

And then there's the fact that scientists find it relatively difficult to say for sure how pest distributions relate to fire patterns. Like many things in nature, it's complicated. Once again, part of the answer may lie with data in museum collections, but it takes time and money to tease it out. That doesn't sit well with politicians and public who want immediate answers and decisive action.

So, there's our advocacy challenge - how do we demonstrate that museums are relevant to things that people care about, to the extent that it's worth taking some of the money budgeted for those things and directing it towards us? It seems like a no-brainer, and yet the level of public funding that's going into museums suggests that we're not doing as good a job as we might hope.

IMO, a good advocacy strategy for natural history collections should have 5 characteristics:

  • The strategy must be based on public benefits
  • It should be rooted in success, not failure
  • It should be forward-looking, not harping back
  • It should depend on relevance, not curiosity value
  • It must be flexible and scaleable
I'm going to explore each of these in detail in the next few posts. But first, in a shameless attempt to capitalize on recent news, I am going to talk about Ebola...

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